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Critical Reasoning

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To overcome the Opioid abuse seen in patients with chronic pain, the scientists at Stanford University have come up with a solution of silencing the neurons in the brain that register pain. The study conducted on mice along the amygdala region that is similar to humans and responsible for controlling emotions, isolated the region associated with pain from the regions responsible for negative emotions and positive rewards. However, it is the negative manifestation of the pain that protects humans from danger and fatal injuries. 

Which of the following if true most strongly supports the scientist’s argument that the plan will work on humans.


a) Most of the chronic pain is .....

b) Opioid drugs help in pain but .....

c) The neurons responsible for eliciting pain...

d) Fear dulls pain and is essential ...

...

5G technology would enable download speeds of 20 GB/second. The mammoth speed is primarily attributed to the millimeter wave spectrum that requires cellular towers every 500 feet for optimum functioning. However, scientists have raised health concerns about 5G service through the “International EMF Scientist Appeal” – a collective opinion of 215 scientists who have highlighted that the WHO have accepted the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) classification of ELF EMF (Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field) as a Group 2B carcinogen.  Even though the frequency used in 5G service is 24 gigahertz and above - similar to carcinogens like X-ray, Ultraviolet and gamma radiation, millimeter wave spectrum is non-ionizing with health impact correlated to the duration of the exposure and not on the nature of the radiation.

What can be inferred from the passage above?

a) The IARC has...
b) An increase in ...
c) Ionizing radiations ...
d) The study from the International...

e) Millimeter wave spectrum is ..

Categories : Critical Reasoning

Unlike the critical reasoning question argument structure questions where you have to identify premise, assumptions, secondary facts and conclusion, the question on parallel reasoning require a keen eye on the similarities of the structure and a closer eye on the conclusion.

Most wrong answer choices would subtly insert words and phrases that would misdirect test takers and force them to choose an option that looks like the correct answer but is not the ‘one.’

The similarity of reasoning, not accuracy

The argument might be flawed or accurate. A common error occurs when test takers choose the first answer choice that falls under the same category as the question. Only the observant test taker notices the part of the question, “most similar” – indicating that you must choose an answer choice that is most like the question.

The length of the question is the biggest challenge. Remembering all the information or the structure of the argument is what derails a test taker from concentrating on the core of the structure.


...

Q) The Chorus from Sam Smith's "Stay With Me" has an eerie resemblance to Tom Petty's 1989 song - “I Won’t Back Down. Mr. Petty and Jeff Lynne, the Songwriters, filed a copyright violation case and settled out of court. Modern song creation has evolved away from the standard process - starting with the lyrics, the sheet music, and finally the tune. For new song creators, it would be impossible to fight cases where some parts of the song had similar sheet music as the songs in the 70s and 80s.

Which one of the following statements weaken the argument?

a) According to Muzic82 - an aggregated opinion database from Music Experts, 98% of the experts felt that Sam Smith's song had a more traditional choir gospel theme than Tom Petty's Chorus.

b) The 1985 case between Fogerty and Fantasy record where the latter sued the artist for stealing "The Old Man Down the Road" from "Run Through the Jungle," ended in a dramatic demonstration when Fogerty brought a guitar to the court and demonstrated the difference in composition. Fogerty won the case and earned the legal fees as well.

c) In a similar case, Marvin Gayle's family was awarded $7.3 million as compensation when Robin Thicke and Pharrell Williams - the songwriter-producer of the 2013 hit "Blurred Lines", infringed on the copyright of the 1977 Marvin Gaye Song "Got to Give It Up" without...


During GMAT Preparation, Critical Reasoning and Data Sufficiency sections require a great deal of adjustment compared to GMAT Reading Comprehension and Sentence correction, as the latter follows a format that you have seen in Computer Adaptive Tests, undergraduate level tests, and other job interview evaluation. The linear thinking that involve variables, data substitution, rules, and logical thinking might not completely work for 700+ GMAT CR and DS sections.

Let us look at a simple example that will show how our logical minds work, and the assumptions that come into play while solving a problem. An L-Shaped object has 4cm and 2 cm sides.


GMAT Assumption Mistakes - Figure 1
How do you divide this L-Shaped object equally? Immediately our mind will parse towards vertices that can divide this object. And as you might have guessed it, a line from Point A to the opposite vertex divides the L-Shaped object equally.

Dividing the Object into Two Equal Parts

...


Q) Vegan Diet proponents have often claimed that low-carb, high-fat diets integral in a non-vegetarian diet is dangerous, and therefore, they have a superior and balanced diet. In fact, vegan diets lack important nutrients, responsible for brain function and blood formation.

Which of the following statements support the conclusion of the argument?

a) Carnosine - a protective agent against aging is found only in Animal Foods.

b) Vitamin B12, found mostly in meat, and responsible for vital brain functions, is deficient in a Vegan diet with a recent study showing 92% of vegans lacking this crucial nutrient.

c) There are no conclusive studies to support the theory put forward by Vegan Diet proponents that meat, eggs, saturated fat or cholesterol cause any harm.

d) Vegan diets require you to avoid sugar, trans fat, and vegetable oil. This is the reason for the health benefit, and not abstinence from Meat

e) Vegan diets have health benefits in the short term but nutrient deficiencies follow that require steady intake of supplements.

For answer and explanation, Download F1GMAT's Mastering GMAT Critical Reasoning (Read the Chapter on How...


Q) If you go by the popularity of Gaming units, as of Jan 4th 2015, Sony’s PS4 sold 18.5 million units and reached 10.9 million PlayStation Plus subscribers, a growth of 37.9% from October 2014.  Despite the massive growth, Sony’s PlayStation is behind Microsoft’s Xbox One, which in November 2014 accelerated its sales due to a $50 price cut, and a bundle of free games. On 28th January 2015, Spotify, the leading music subscription service announced an exclusive partnership with PS4, and offered digital music to 64 million PlayStation Network users. With the announcement, Feb 2015 saw a spike in sales for the PS4 units by 45%.

Which one of the following conclusions is valid for the above statements?


a) PS4, on itself, does not have the brand reach nor the mass following needed to overtake Microsoft’s Xbox One.

b) Demand for Microsoft’s Xbox One declined during Feb 2015

c) Bundling of services has increased the market share for Sony’s PS4

d) Price Cut had a direct impact on sales of Gaming Units

e) Sales of Sony’s PS4 will overtake Microsoft’s Xbox One in 2015

For answer and explanation, Download F1GMAT's Mastering GMAT Critical Reasoning...




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