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How to Paraphrase GMAT Critical Reasoning Question (Explained with Example)

GMAT CR ParaphrasingParaphrasing an argument is a long debated topic. The bottom line is that you would have one minute and fifty seconds to solve each critical reasoning question. Is it wise to paraphrase the argument? It depends.  A 3 to 5 line argument might be stated in a complex way. The goal of paraphrasing should be to simplify the argument with concise statements.

Putting the argument in your own words
can help you break down the arguments to its parts. So in order to paraphrase argument, identify the type of critical reasoning question and its structure. The critical reasoning questions can start with a conclusion followed by arguments or start with arguments followed by the conclusion. In most cases, the transition will be clear but in instances when the transition is blurred it would be wise to paraphrase the argument. Try paraphrasing several GMAT Critical Reasoning questions before adopting it as a strategy for your GMAT test.

Let us look at a question about the Medicare program introduced by President Obama:

Q) According to Congressional Budget Office, President Obama’s Medicare budget proposal is expected to save $364 billion over the next 10 years, an estimate that is close to the $370 billion that White House had earlier estimated. The proposed cuts however will negatively impact 40 percent of Medicare providers by 2019, 45 percent by 2030, and 55 percent by 2050. No wonder liberals are unhappy about the proposal.

Which statement strongly supports the conclusion?

a) The proposed budget cuts will impact Medicare providers, who are the primary care providers for senior citizens

b) According to the proposal a flat premium rate will be charged at hospitals for doctor’s visit which will negatively impact 35% of liberals.

c) Liberals had strongly opposed the move to cut Medicare benefits for senior citizens.

d) According to recent survey, more than 88% of medical providers will be liberals by 2019.

e) Liberals account for just 14% of current medical providers

Solution

As you can see above, the critical reasoning question has put forward two facts that constitute the argument followed by a conclusion. Let us paraphrase the argument and eliminate wrong answer choices.

1) Paraphrasing

According to Congressional Budget Office, President Obama’s Medicare budget proposal is expected to save $364 billion over the next 10 years, an estimate that is close to the $370 billion that White House had earlier estimated. The proposed cuts however will negatively impact 40 percent of Medicare providers by 2019, 45 percent by 2030, and 55 percent by 2050. No wonder liberals are unhappy about the proposal.

Paraphrased Statement 1:
President Obama’s Medicare budget proposal will save $364 billion in 10 years

As you can see above, the sentence might look similar to the actual argument but if you notice closely the second fact “an estimate that is close to the $370 billion that White House had earlier estimated” is not required for the argument. Therefore, we ignore it.

Paraphrased Statement 2: Negative impact on Medicare providers

40% by 2019
45 % 2030
55% 2050

When numbers are used in an argument, it is better to write them in a separate line as most of the time the conclusion will depend on the calculation that we have to do on these facts.

Conclusion: Liberals not happy with the proposal

When you paraphrase conclusion, identify the subject that is the focus of the argument. In this case, it is the liberals. The options that you are going to read should address the subject – “liberals.” If it does not do that, eliminate that option. Let us look at each answer.

a) The proposed budget cuts will impact Medicare providers, who are the primary care providers for senior citizens

Liberals who are the subject of the argument is not addressed. Eliminate!

b) According to the proposal, a flat premium rate will be charged at hospitals for doctor’s visit that will negatively impact 35% of liberals.

This answer choice has focused on liberals. So let us look at the numbers and compare it with Paraphrased Statement 2.

“Negatively Impact 35% Liberals”. Keep this option.

Remember the question is which statement strongly supports the conclusion?

Conclusion – Liberals not happy

Does negative impact on 35% liberals support the conclusion. Yes, to a certain extent but let us look at other options.

c) Liberals had strongly opposed the move to cut Medicare benefits for senior citizens.

GMAT test creators use this trick too often. If you had paid attention, option A talks about Senior Citizens as the biggest benefactors of the services offered by Medicare providers. But our paraphrased arguments (1 & 2) do not mention Senior Citizens. The subject is liberals (conclusion) and Medicare providers (arguments).

d) According to recent survey, more than 88% of medical providers will be liberals by 2019.

This argument might seem absurd. You might think about the methods used to predict this number. But the only thing that we have to notice is “recent survey” and “medical providers will be”. So the argument tries to convey the message that the survey is valid and predicts the liberal % with accuracy.

As expected it comes down to math.

88% Medical Providers Liberal in 2019

     Negative Impact: 40% by 2019
    .88 * 40 = 35.2%

     Keep this option

e) Liberals account for just 14% of current medicare providers


This argument weakens the conclusion. If the liberals just account for 14% of the medicare providers then it is unlikely that the proposal would make them unhappy. We might be tempted to assume that liberals are socially aware and might be unhappy with a proposal that will negatively impact the society in general. It might be true but when answering GMAT CR Questions, limit the scope of your assumptions.

When you compare B and D, the latter option gives us evidence that the proposal impacts 35.2% of liberals compared to 35% mentioned in option B.

Essential GMAT Reading Comprehension Guide


After reading F1GMAT’s Essential GMAT Reading Comprehension Guide, you will:

1. Complete GMAT RC Questions in less than 1 minute and 50 seconds
2. Read Faster
3. Take Notes Effectively
4. Collect and Interpret Facts
5. Speed up Summary Creation
6. Remember Information
7. Question the Author   
8. Learn to Answer GMAT Reading Comprehension Title question   
9. Learn to Answer GMAT Reading Comprehension Main Idea Question   

10.Learn to Answer GMAT Reading comprehension Inference question

11. Learn to Answer GMAT Reading Comprehension Detail Question   

12. Learn to Answer GMAT Reading Comprehension Purpose Question
12. Learn to Answer GMAT organization of passage Question
13. Learn to identify the style/tone or attitude of the author

Download Essential GMAT Reading Comprehension Guide (2019 Edition) (100+ New Questions)









Mastering GMAT Critical Reasoning



After you read F1GMAT’s Mastering GMAT Critical Reasoning Guide, you will learn:

How to overcome flawed thinking in GMAT Critical Reasoning?  


How to spot Inconsistencies in Arguments  

How to eliminate out of scope answer choices using Necessary and Sufficient Conditions  

How to Paraphrase GMAT Critical Reasoning Question  

How to Answer Assumption Question Type  

How to Answer Conclusion Question Type  

How to Answer Inference Question Type  

How to Answer Strengthen Question Type  

How to Answer Weaken Question Type  

How to Answer bold-faced and Summary Question Types  

How to Answer Parallel Reasoning Questions  

How to Answer the Fill in the Blanks Question


Download Mastering GMAT Critical Reasoning (2019 Edition) (25+ New Questions)

Mastering GMAT Critical Reasoning (2019 Edition)

Chapters

1) Introduction   
2) 6 Step Strategy to solve GMAT Critical Reasoning Questions   
3) How to overcome flawed thinking in GMAT Critical Reasoning?   
4) 4 GMAT Critical Reasoning Fallacies   
5) Generalization in GMAT Critical Reasoning   
6) Inconsistencies in Arguments   
7) Eliminate Out of Scope answer choices using Necessary and Sufficient Conditions   
8) Ad Hominem in GMAT Critical Reasoning   
9) Slippery Slope in GMAT Critical Reasoning   
10) Affirming the Consequent – GMAT Critical Reasoning   
11) How to Paraphrase GMAT Critical Reasoning Question   
12) How to Answer Assumption Question Type   
13) How to Answer Conclusion Question Type   
14) How to Answer Inference Question Type   
15) How to Answer Strengthen Question Type   
16) How to Answer Weaken Question Type   
17) How to Answer bold-faced and Summary Question Types   
18) How to Answer Parallel Reasoning Questions   
19) How to Answer the Fill in the Blanks Question   
Question Bank   
Question 1: 5G Technology (Inference)   
Question 2: Water Purifier vs. Minerals (Fill in the Blanks)   
Question 3: Opioid Abuse (Strengthens)   
Question 4: Abe and Japan’s Economy (Inference)   
Question 5: Indians and Pulse Import (Weakens)   
Question 6: Retail Chains in Latin America (Assumption)   
Question 7: American Tax Rates – Republican vs. Democrats (Inference)   
Question 8: AI – China vs the US (Weakens)   
Question 9: Phone Snooping (Strengthens)   
Question 10:  Traditional Lawns (Assumption)   
Question 11:  Appraisal-Tendency Framework (Inference)   
Question 12:  Meta-Analysis of Diet Trials (Weakens)   
Question 13:  Biases in AI (Strengthens)   
Question 14:  Stock Price and Effectiveness of Leadership (Inference)   
Question 15:  US Border Wall (Weakens)   
Question 16:  Driverless Car and Pollution (Assumption)   
Question 17:  Climate Change (Inference)   
Question 18:  Rent a Furniture (Weakens)   
Question 19:  Marathon Performance and Customized Shoes (Weakens)   
Question 20:  Guaranteed Basic Income (Assumption)   
Question 21:  Brexit (Infer)   
Question 22:  AB vs Traditional Hotels (Assumption)   
Question 23:  Tax Incentive and Job Creation (Weakens)   
Question 24:  Obesity and Sleeve Gastrectomy (Inference)   
Question 25:  Recruiting Executives (Weaken)   

Answers with Detailed Explanation

Download Mastering GMAT Critical Reasoning (2019 Edition)




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